3. International migration of labor services.
Labor resources are the most important factor in the production process, characterized by high mobility. The mobility of labor in the world economy is manifested in the form of international migration. Migration of labor is the resettlement of the able-bodied population from one state to another for a period of more than 1 year, for economic and non-economic reasons (political, social, religious, national, racial, etc.). Immigration is the entry of the able-bodied population into a given country from beyond its borders. Emigration is the departure of the able-bodied population from a given country beyond its borders. Migration balance – the difference between immigration from the country and emigration to the country. Re-emigration is the return of emigrants to their homeland for permanent residence. Finally, the “brain drain” is the international migration of highly skilled personnel. International migration can be of the following types: irrevocable, temporary-permanent (from one to six years), seasonal, pendulum (daily, weekly transfer to a place of work in another country).
Depending on the legal status, migration can be legal and illegal. Illegal migrants are people who, in search of work, enter the country illegally or come to it legally (by tourists, by invitation.) And illegally find work. Recently, the scale of illegal immigration has significantly expanded. The Chinese are sent mainly to the US and Russia, the Cubans to Florida, the Algerians to France, the Pakistanis to England, and so on. For example, according to many forecasts, a large influx of illegal migrants from the “third world” countries is expected in Ukraine, which use the territory of Ukraine as a transit point for further penetration into Western Europe. The reasons for the migration of the economic population are the different economic levels of development of individual countries, the difference in terms of wages, the availability of unemployment in some countries, the functioning of international corporations exporting labor for work in foreign branches.
The basis of migration flows are workers, to a lesser extent – employees. A relatively new form of migration is the transfer of scientific and technical personnel (to the US and Western Europe). There are 5 directions of international labor migration: a) from developing to industrialized countries; b) within the framework of industrially developed countries; (mainly for non-economic reasons, there is a brain drain from Europe to the US, c) between developing countries (primarily in NIS);
d) from the former socialist countries to industrialized countries; e) migration of scientists, skilled specialists from industrialized countries to developing countries.
The main centers of attraction for the workforce are:
a) Western Europe. Especially Germany, France (from North Africa), England, Belgium (from Spain and Italy), Netherlands, Sweden (from Finland) and Switzerland. In the late 90’s. XX century. the influx of immigrants was estimated at 180 thousand people. in year. Only in the EU countries there are 13 million immigrants. Currently, the general labor market is developing here, which implies the freedom of movement of workers by EU countries and the unification of labor legislation. On 9 December 1989, the Charter of Basic Social Rights of Workers of the EEC was adopted.
b) The Middle East. This center was formed in the 70’s. XX century. Oil-producing countries attract cheap low-wage labor to hard, low-paid jobs from India, Bangladesh, Pakistan. Jordan, Yemen, as well as from Greece, Turkey, Italy, Korea, the Philippines. By the mid-90’s. More than 4.5 million foreigners worked here, and local workers 2 million. For example, in the United Arab Emirates the share of immigrants in the total number of workers is 97%, in Kuwait – 86.5%, Saudi Arabia – 40%. c) USA and Canada. The labor resources of these countries have historically been largely at the expense of immigrants. Every year, immigrants come to the United States more than all other countries combined. Foreigners account for about 5% of the country’s workforce. Low-skilled labor penetrates into the United States from the nearby Latin American countries (Mexico) and the Caribbean. Highly skilled workers – practically, from all countries. The influx of immigrants to the US and Canada in the mid-90’s. was estimated at 900 thousand people.
d) the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. These are, first of all, Asian NIS – Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, as well as Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan and Brunei. The largest exporter of labor is China, in addition – Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka. The total number of foreign workers is from 2.5 to 4 million. in year. In Japan, mainly Koreans work, there were also Iranians.
Countries that receive labor receive the following advantages: a) the competitiveness of the goods produced by the country increases due to the reduction of production costs associated with the lower price of the labor force; b) foreign workers, presenting additional demand for goods and services, stimulate production and additional employment in the country;
c) when the skilled labor is imported, the host country saves on the costs of education and training; d) foreign workers are often shock absorbers in the case of crises and unemployment (they are the first to be fired, they reduce their salaries.); e) foreign workers are not provided with pensions, they are not covered by various social programs; (e) According to OECD, immigrants improve the demographic picture of developed countries suffering from aging (in Luxembourg, 38% of newborns appear in the family of immigrants, in Switzerland – 24%). For countries exporting labor, the advantages are as follows: a) export of labor is an important source of SLE in the country; b) the export of labor means the reduction of unemployment and, consequently, of social tensions in one’s own country; c) free for the exporting country training of labor for new professional skills, familiarity with advanced technology, management methods. The negative side is the outflow of qualified personnel needed for their national economy.
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3. International migration of labor services.