The main problems of migration in Russia and their solution.
The natural decline in Russia exceeds the natural increase in the population. We are gradually becoming less and less. In recent years, due to migrants, the population of the Russian Federation is shrinking less rapidly. But can this be considered a worthy way out of the situation? How are the problems of migration in Russia solved in 2018?
They come to visit us.
Ironically, Russia is in the top five countries attracting migrants, along with countries such as the United States and Canada. But if in Western countries need skilled labor, and applicants are severely selected, then people often go to Russia for work without education, without knowledge of the Russian language and generally without any qualification. This trend of the influx of cheap labor from the countries of Central Asia and Transcaucasia has existed since the early 2000s.
On the one hand, the influx of foreigners who do not require large salaries allows them to withstand competition in the market, making the production process cheaper. But, on the other hand, all the migrant workers earned by migrant workers are exported from the country, they are being spent abroad.
Most of the workers arrived are illegal. And this means that employers are cashing in on their work and do not make any deductions to the budget. In addition, if there is cheap labor, there is no need to introduce new technologies and develop.
There is an opinion that the need for foreign labor in Russia is greatly exaggerated. Natives of the former union republics create problems with work for local residents. The work of foreigners is paid so low that no Russian simply can not survive on such a salary, not to mention the maintenance of the family. It is beneficial only for employers.
In some regions, there are so many migrants that they create entire separate settlements, which makes their assimilation in Russian society difficult. Russia must solve the problem with the demographic crisis. But inhabiting their territories by people who are not carriers of Russian culture, sometimes not knowing the language, means exposing the country’s integrity to a threat. What will the average Russian in ten? twenty years? Will he be able to understand Russian speech?
The criminal situation.
Visitors who come to work, prefer to live by their own laws, while often ignoring the laws of the country in which they live. Often illegal migrants go to crime, sell drugs. Against this background, Russian nationalists find support for nationalist ideas that are far from a healthy national identity.
In Russia, the population density is not homogeneous. Everyone wishing to earn aspire to big cities: so advises the science of migration phenomena, and simple common sense. Huge territories in the north and east will soon have to learn anew. People leave their habitable places, because they do not see the prospects, small settlements, having lost the city-forming enterprises, quickly deteriorate. In them there are those who can not leave, or those who do not care.
Migration from the country.
The population of Russia is shrinking not only because of natural decline. People with demanded professions are trying their best to settle in Europe and America.
So far, skilled, literate, able-bodied Russians, who have not found themselves a worthy use in their home country, are moving abroad, their place is occupied by builders and laborers from the near abroad.
The problems of migration in Russia in 2015 are resolved at the legislative level. In 2014, a number of laws were adopted that changed the procedure for finding foreigners in the Russian Federation. Some of them have already entered into force.
Everyone who wants to get a job in Russia will need to pass an examination for knowledge of the Russian language, history and laws of the Russian Federation.
Thus, the government wants to raise the educational level of migrants and increase revenues to the budget. From June 1, 2015, all foreign drivers of commercial transport will need to have the rights of the Russian model.
Entry – only on a foreign passport.
All citizens of the CIS countries for entering Russia now need a passport. The decision is not finalized only over Ukraine, or rather, postponed indefinitely. The state fees for registration of documents in the FMS also increased.
A patent for work.
Instead of a work permit, a patent is now issued, and it is valid only in the region where it was received. Previously, such patents were issued only for work on individuals, now they are also issued for employment with a legal entity.
To issue such a document, you need to pass a medical examination, take exams, get a TIN and medical insurance, all within 30 days from the time you enter the country. To participate in the payment of all these procedures is offered to employers if they are really interested in the employee.
Tougher and penalties for the use of illegal labor. Illegals who violate the migration regime for a long time will close the entrance to the Russian Federation for up to 10 years.
Attraction of Russian workers.
Another new project envisages the payment of subsidies from the federal budget to those employers who will employ not foreigners but Russian citizens from other regions. This will reduce the level of unemployment and replace external labor migration with internal labor migration. The so-called special economic zones will receive priority.
Program of resettlement of compatriots.
Since 2007, the program for the resettlement of compatriots has been working, which makes it possible to obtain Russian citizenship under simplified conditions. The main criterion is the knowledge of the Russian language and culture. A number of regions have been identified that particularly need new residents. To stimulate the move to such regions, the state is ready to pay “lifting”. According to the forecasts of the FMS, this year more than one hundred thousand compatriots will come to Russia.
The main problems of migration in Russia and their solution.