Mankind has already become accustomed to the constant international exchange of money, information, methods of production and other “engines” of international state relations. But one of the most important and most important types of exchange is the exchange of labor resources, the name of which is international labor migration. International labor migration is rightly recognized as one of the most iconic phenomena in the world, the consequences of which often cause a huge number of acute political and social problems around the world.
Labor migration is one of the varieties of migration, which is a combination of population movements with the intention of finding and getting a job. This is a very voluminous concept, which can vary slightly around the world. There are different types of labor migration, both temporary and permanent.
The main types of labor migration.
When it comes to labor migration of a permanent nature, we are talking about immigrants traveling to the receiving state in order to gain a foothold there on an ongoing basis. And it does not matter whether labor migrants are going to get citizenship, or they will be content only with a residence permit and a work permit. Some countries are widely known for their strict laws of obtaining citizenship, so the acquisition of a passport is not always a mandatory item in labor migration on an ongoing basis.
International labor migration can also have this character. The whole matter lies in the peculiarities of the legislation. When the term of labor migration is limited from one to six years, such an international labor migration is called a temporary permanent migration.
This type of labor migration is one of the most common in the world. There are many types of employment that are seasonal in nature:
Agriculture; Fishing; Some types of construction; Spheres of services.
In such cases it is advisable to involve seasonal workers. The seasonal form of labor migration is quite common in Russia too – workers are invited through pre-established labor contracts, or they hire people from already arrived migrants.
Some migrants have to cross the state border daily in order to arrive at the workplace. This form of labor migration has led to the regulation of a large number of laws that simplify the movement from country to country.
The so-called phenomenon of “brain drain”.
The consequences of labor migration of this kind are the reason for the gradual decline of donor states, from which migrants move to more developed countries. Not so many countries are similar donors – the most famous are India, Egypt, Pakistan and Russia. Russia and other CIS countries deserve special attention, since the peak of the “brain drain” fell precisely on the collapse of the USSR. Highly qualified specialists who received higher education and had good work experience could not find a decent job in perestroika Russia. It was this fact that became the main reason for the labor migration of well-known scientists and specialists in demanded professions.
The international migration of labor resources is due to the clear advantage of some countries over most of the undeveloped states. If the first waves of labor migration were caused by violent means (for example, the transportation of slaves from Africa to the US), then with the abolition of slavery, the developing capitalist countries had to compensate for a shortage of labor by another way.
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Regulation of the issue did not take much time – it was only necessary to simplify the rules for crossing the border. Of course, in this case, it is external labor migration that is observed. External labor migration implies crossing the border, while the internal one can be limited only by movement within the state.
The causes of labor migration around the world.
There are various reasons why the population has to resort to labor migration. It can be features of society and life, environmental factor, complex political situation, etc. In most cases, a migrant simply can not support himself and his family, which forces him to travel around the world in search of decent earnings. In some cases, experienced professionals strive to achieve maximum career growth, and therefore go abroad.
Wars and armed conflicts are also a significant cause of labor migration. This was especially common after the Second World War. The terrible events of those years carried off a huge number of lives, most of which were adult capable men.
Accordingly, there was an acute shortage of labor. Therefore, demobilized soldiers from border states were invited to work in large enterprises, while simplifying the rules of crossing the border. Such active state intervention in labor migration issues was particularly noticeable in post-war France – virtually all restrictions on the entry of migrants were lifted. In this case, the relevant law on external labor migration was adopted, which helped to effectively solve the problem.
In the first place are the economic causes of labor migration. As you know, only a few of the dominant countries own most of the world’s resources, while the more backward regions are doomed to poverty. It is this state of affairs that forces migrants to go abroad in search of earnings. Not every government takes measures to regulate labor migration at the state level, so the solution of this problem will not appear soon.
What are the types of migrants?
An important point – do not confuse the ordinary “shuttle traders” and other businessmen, often forced to cross the border, with labor migration. But at the same time, representatives of many large firms often move from country to country, in order to train new personnel, conduct a training seminar or monitor the performance of work. This phenomenon is often found in large corporations, whose branches are scattered around the world, and is ranked among labor migrants.
These are migrants who seek to move to another country for permanent residence, with the subsequent receipt of citizenship. They move either alone or with their families. The most popular countries for such migrants are the United States, Canada and some countries of Western Europe. In Russia, there are large-scale government programs for such migrants, but they are more focused on the return of compatriots.
Workers under the contract (usually with an average qualification or at all unqualified).
When a migrant arrives in a country on condition that he leaves it after a certain period, he is called a contract worker. After fulfilling contractual obligations, the worker is obliged to return home. These migrants include seasonal workers, sailors and representatives of the service sector. For example, in some regions of Russia many people come to Turkey during the tourist season.
Such specialists migrate in search of better conditions for employment and career growth. This “brain drain” sometimes becomes a serious problem at the state level.
One of the most serious problems that all international labor migration as a whole suffers from. Illegal migrants cross the border illegally, and then unofficially find work. Sometimes illegal migrants arrive legally – on a call or as a tourist, and then remain in the country. In Russia, in the times of the USSR, such people were called “defectors”.
This is not a “pure” model of labor migration. The population affected by coups, wars, or political persecution is sent abroad to change places of residence and subsequent employment.
Modern international migration of labor resources in Russia.
In recent years, the number of settlers in Russia has decreased, mostly migrants invited on a contract basis. Thus, the government manages to regulate the ratio of the number of available jobs and those wishing to find a job. A full-fledged international migration of labor resources in Russia appeared only after the collapse of the USSR. Before that, the country experienced several waves of migration, but all of them were caused by military conflicts and political persecution.
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In connection with such events, the government had to take certain regulatory measures, since illegal immigrants do not bring any income to the country, but only reduce standards when hiring and annually export several billion rubles from Russia. In addition, illegal migrants did not aspire to priority areas for Russia – they always came to developed cities with a multi-million population, where there is a serious problem with employment.
The Russian government is more interested in attracting compatriots than foreign workers. Compatriots have sufficient knowledge of the Russian language and local traditions, and therefore are more beneficial to the state. To attract compatriots, a special program of repatriation was introduced. Thanks to this program, it is possible to conduct effective migration regulation, encouraging the migration of compatriots to more priority regions for Russia. These may be regions with a low level of labor, cities with large-scale projects requiring specialist recruitment, and other similar territories in Russia.